Statistics Translated, Second Edition

A Step-by-Step Guide to Analyzing and Interpreting Data

GUILFORD PUBLICATIONSISBN: 9781462545414

Price:
Sale price$193.00
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Re-stocking soon

Imprint: THE GUILFORD PRESS
By:
Steven R. Terrell
Release Date:

Format:
HARDBACK
Pages:
440

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Description

- Introduction: You Do Not Need to Be a Statistician to Understand Statistics! A Little Background Many Students Do Not Know What They're Getting Into A Few Simple Steps - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis So, What's New in This Edition? Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? 1. Identifying a Research Problem and Stating Hypotheses Introduction Identify the problem - Characteristics of a Good Problem Statement - Finding a Good Research Problem - The Problem Is Interesting to the Researcher - The Scope of the Problem Is Manageable by the Researcher - The Researcher Has the Knowledge, Time, and Resources Needed to Investigate the Problem - The Problem Can Be Researched through the Collection and Analysis of Numeric Data - Investigating the Problem Has Theoretical or Practical Significance - It Is Ethical to Investigate the Problem - Writing the Problem Statement - Problem Statements Must Be Clear and Concise - The Problem Statement Must Include All Variables to Be Considered - The Problem Statement Should Not Interject the Researcher's Bias - Summary of Step 1: Identify the Problem State a Hypothesis - An Example of Stating Our Hypothesis - A Little More Detail - The Direction of Hypotheses - Using Directional Hypotheses to Test a "Greater Than" Relationship - Using Directional Hypotheses to Test a "Less Than" Relationship - Nondirectional Hypotheses - Hypotheses Must Be Testable via the Collection and Analysis of Data - Research versus Null Hypotheses - Stating Null Hypotheses for Directional Hypotheses - Issues Underlying the Null Hypothesis for Directional Research Hypotheses - Stating Null Hypotheses for Nondirectional Hypotheses - A Preview of Testing the Null Hypothesis - Where Does That Leave Us? - Statistical Words of Wisdom - Summary of Step 2: State a Hypothesis Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! Problem Statements Case Studies: The Case of Distance Therapy - The Case of the New Teacher - The Case of Being Exactly Right - The Case of "Does It Really Work?" - The Case of Advertising - The Case of Learning to Speak - The Case of Kids on Cruises 2. Identifying the Independent and Dependent Variables in a Hypothesis Introduction Identify the Independent Variable - Nonmanipulated Independent Variables - Another Way of Thinking about Nonmanipulated Independent Variables - Manipulated or Experimental Independent Variables - Levels of the Independent Variable - Summary of Step 3: Identify the Independent Variable Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Identifying Your Dependent Variable - What Type of Data Are We Collecting? - Interval Data - Data Types-What Is the Good News? - Summary of the Dependent Variable and Data Types - Measures of Central Tendency - The Mean, Median, and Mode-Measures of Central Tendency - The Mode - Using Statistical Software to Analyze Our Data - Summary of the First Part of Step 4: Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Do You Understand These Formulas? Quiz Time! 3. Measures of Dispersion and Measures of Relative Standing Introduction Measures of Dispersion - The Range - The Standard Deviation - The Variance Measures of Relative Standing - Percentiles - Computing and Interpreting T-Scores - Stanines - Putting It All Together - Using SPSS for T-Scores and Stanines-Not So Fast! Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Do You Understand These Formulas? Quiz Time! 4. Graphically Describing the Dependent Variable Introduction Graphical Descriptive Statistics - Graphically Describing Nominal Data - Pie Charts - Bar Charts - Graphically Describing Quantitative Data - Scatterplots - Histograms - Don't Let a Picture Tell You the Wrong Story! - Summary of Graphical Descriptive Statistics The Normal Distribution - Things That Can Affect the Shape of a Distribution of Quantitative Data Summary of the Normal Distribution Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! 5. Choosing the Right Statistical Test Introduction The Very Basics - The Central Limit Theorem - The Sampling Distribution of the Means - Summary of the Central Limit Theorem and the Sampling Distribution of the Means How Are We Doing So Far? Estimating Population Parameters Using Confidence Intervals - The Alpha Value - Type I and Type II Errors Predicting a Population Parameter Based on a Sample Statistic Using Confidence Intervals - Pay Close Attention Here - Confidence Intervals for Alpha = .01 and Alpha = .10 - Another Way to Think about Scores in Confidence Intervals - Tying This All Together - Be Careful When Changing Your Alpha Values - Do We Understand Everything We Need to Know about Confidence Intervals? Testing Hypotheses about a Population Parameter Based on a Sample Statistic - Making a Decision about the Certification Examination Scores - We Are Finally Going to Test Our Hypothesis! - Testing a One-Tailed Hypothesis Testing a One-Tailed "Less Than" Hypothesis Summarizing What We Just Said Be Careful When Changing Your Alpha Values The Heart of Inferential Statistics - Probability Values - A Few More Examples - Great News-We Will Always Use Software to Compute Our Value Choose the Right Statistical Test - You Already Know a Few Things - A Couple of Notes about the Table - Summary of Step 5: Choose the Right Statistical Test Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Do You Understand These Formulas and Symbols? Quiz Time! 6. The One-Sample -Test Introduction Welcome to the Guinness Breweries The Distribution - Putting This Together - Determining the Critical Value of - Degrees of Freedom - Be Careful Computing Degrees of Freedom - Let's Get Back to Our Anxiety Hypothesis - Plotting Our Critical Value of - The Statistical Effect Size of Our Example Let's Look at a Directional Hypothesis - Using the Value - Check Your Mean Scores! One More Time - Important Note about Software Packages Let's Use the Six-Step Model! - The Case of Slow Response Time - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of Stopping Sneezing - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of Growing Tomatoes - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? 7. The Independent-Sample -Test Introduction If We Have Samples from Two Independent Populations, How Do We Know If They Are Significantly Different from One Another? - The Sampling Distribution of Mean Differences - Calculating the Value for the Independent-Sample -Test - Pay Attention Here - Testing Our Hypothesis - The Value - Note on Variance and the -Test - The Statistical Effect Size of Our Example - Let's Try Another Example - Remember the Effect Size - How Does This Work for a Directional Hypothesis? - Reminder-Always Pay Attention to the Direction of the Means! Putting the Independent-Sample -Test to Work - The Case of the Cavernous Lab - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of the Report Cards - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of the Anxious Athletes - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! The Case of the Homesick Blues The Case of the Cold Call The Case of the Prima Donnas The Case of the Wrong Side of the Road The Case of Workplace Satisfaction The Case of the Flower Show 8. The Dependent-Sample -Test Introduction That's Great, But How Do We Test Our Hypotheses? Independence versus Dependence - Computing the Value for a Dependent-Sample -Test - Testing a One-Tailed "Greater Than" Hypothesis - The Effect Size for a Dependent-Sample -Test - Testing a One-Tailed "Less Than" Hypothesis - Testing a Two-Tailed Hypothesis - Let's Move Forward and Use Our Six-Step Model - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis The Case of the Unexcused Students - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - Just in Case-A Nonparametric Alternative Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! The Case of Technology and Achievement The Case of Worrying about Our Neighbors The Case of SPAM The Case of "We Can't Get No Satisfaction" The Case of "Winning at the Lottery" 9. Analysis of Variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance Introduction Understanding the ANOVA The Different Types of ANOVAs - One-Way ANOVA - Factorial ANOVA - Multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) - Assumptions of the ANOVA - Random Samples - Independence of Scores - Normal Distribution of Data - Homogeneity of Variance Calculating the ANOVA - Descriptive Statistics - The Total Variance - The Total Sum of Squares - The Between Sum of Squares - The Within Sum of Squares - Computing the Degrees of Freedom - Computing the Mean Square - Computing the F Value - The F Distribution - Determining the Area under the Curve for F Distributions - The Value for an ANOVA - Effect Size for the ANOVA Testing a Hypothesis Using the ANOVA - The Case of Multiple Means of Math Mastery - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Post-Hoc Comparisons - Multiple-Comparison Tests - Always Observe the Means! - The Case of Seniors Skipping School - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of Quality Time - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of Regional Discrepancies - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Factorial ANOVA - The Case of Age Affecting Ability - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - Interpreting the Interaction value - The Case of the Coach - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) - Assumptions of the MANOVA - Using the MANOVA - The Case of Balancing Time - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! The Case of Degree Completion The Case of Seasonal Depression The Case of Driving Away The Case of Climbing The Case of Employee Productivity 10. The Chi-Square Tests Introduction The One-Way Chi-Square Test The Factorial Chi-Square Test (the Chi-Square Test of Independence) - Computing the Chi-Square Statistic - The Chi-Square Distribution - What about the Post-Hoc Test? - Working with an Even Number of Expected Values - The Case of the Belligerent Bus Drivers - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of the Irate Parents - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Chi-Square Test of Independence - Computing Chi-Square for the Test of Independence - Computing Expected Values for the Test of Independence - Computing the Chi-Square Value for the Test of Independence - Determining the Degrees of Freedom for the Test of Independence - We Are Finally Going to Test Our Hypothesis - Using SPSS to Check What We Just Computed - The Corporal Punishment Conundrum - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis Post-Hoc Tests Following the Chi-Square - The Case of Type of Instruction and Learning Style - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! The Case of Prerequisites and Performance The Case of Getting What You Asked For The Case of Money Meaning Nothing The Case of Equal Opportunity 11. The Correlational Procedures Introduction Understanding the Idea of Correlations Interpreting Pearson's - A Word of Caution - An Even More Important Word of Caution! A Nonparametric Correlational Procedure - The Value of a Correlation - The Case of the Absent Students - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - Another Example: The Case against Sleep - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of Height versus Weight - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - The Case of Different Tastes - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis - Once We Have a Linear Relationship, What Can We Do with It? Linear Regression - The Regression Equation - Computing the Slope - Computing the Intercept - Why Wasn't It Exactly Right? - Using the Six-Step Model: The Case of Age and Driving - Identify the Problem - State a Hypothesis - Identify the Independent Variable - Identify and Describe the Dependent Variable - Choose the Right Statistical Test - Use Data Analysis Software to Test the Hypothesis Summary Do You Understand These Key Words and Phrases? Quiz Time! The Case of "Like Father, Like Son" The Case of "Can't We All Just Get Along?" The Case of More Is Better The Case of More Is Better Still - Conclusion: Have We Accomplished What We Set Out to Do? Statistics in a New Light A Limited Set of Statistical Techniques The Use of Statistical Software packages A Straightforward Approach At Long Last - Appendix A. Area under the Normal Curve Table (Critical Values of ) - Appendix B. Critical Values of - Appendix C. Critical Values of When Alpha = .01 - Appendix D. Critical Values of When Alpha = .05 - Appendix E. Critical Values of When Alpha = .10 - Appendix F. Critical Values of Chi-Square - Appendix G. Selecting the Right Statistical Test - Glossary - Answers to Quiz Time!

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