Transfusion Science, second edition


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Joyce Overfield,Maureen M. Dawson,David Hamer
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1. The immune system 1.1 Immunology and transfusion science; 1.2 The immune system; 1.3 Two types of immune defence; 1.4 Non-specific defences; 1.5 Non-specific responses to tissue damage and infection; 1.6 The specific immune response; 1.7 Cells of the specific immune response 2. Antibodies and antigens 2.1 History of antibodies; 2.2 Antibodies are immunoglobulins; 2.3 Kinetics of the antibody response; 2.4 Immunoglobulin isotypes; 2.5 Antibody structure; 2.6 Binding of an antibody to an epitope; 2.7 Effector role of the antibody 3. Complement 3.1 Historical context; 3.2 Complement is not a single entity; 3.3 The classical pathway: activation to lysis; 3.4 Other biological activities of complement; 3.5 Alternative pathway for complement activation; 3.6 The lectin pathway; 3.7 Physiological regulation of complement activation; 3.8 Complement in transfusion science 4. Genetics for blood groups 4.1 Genetics and blood groups; 4.2 DNA and chromosomes; 4.3 The structure and role of genes; 4.4 DNA replication and protein synthesis; 4.5 Blood groups and molecular events in genes; 4.6 Inheritance of blood group genes 5. Introduction to blood groups: the ABO blood group system 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Blood group nomenclature; 5.3 The ABO blood group system; 5.4 The biochemical nature of the A and B antigens; 5.5 genes involved in the ABO system; 5.6 Secretors of A,B and H sugars; 5.7 The FUT1 (H) gene and the Bombay blood groups; 5.8 Inheritance and molecular genetics of the ABO groups; 5.9 Sub-groups of A and B blood groups; 5.10 Population distribution of the ABO groups; 5.11 The distribution of ABO determining antigens; 5.12 ABO blood group antibodies 6 The Rh blood group system 6.1 Introduction to the Rh system; 6.2 Inheritance and nomenclature of the Rh system; 6.3 Fisher' s dce system; 6.4 Two locus model; 6.5 Qualitative differences in Rh antigens; 6.6 Quantitative differences in Rh antigens; 6.7 Laboratory aspects of Rh blood group typing 7. Other blood group systems 7.1 Carbohydrate antigens; 7.2 Protein antigens; 7.3 Importance of other blood groups in transfusion science 8. Immune and auto immune haematology disorders 8.1 Mechanisms of red cell destruction; 8.2 Causes and classification of immune haemolytic anaemia; 8.3 Haemolytic transfusion reactions; 8.4 Warm auto immune haemolytic anaemia; 8.5 Cold haemolytic anaemia; 8.6Underlying mechanisms which may cause immune/auto immune haemolytic anaemia; 8.7 Drug induced haemolytic anaemia; 8.8 Laboratory tests for diagnosis of auto immune / immune haemolytic anaemia; 8.9 Haemolytic disease of the newborn; 8.10 Immune disorders affecting platelets 9. Blood products and components 9.1 Introduction to blood components; 9.2 Blood components for transfusion; 9.3 Plasma derived blood components; 9.4 Plasma derived products from single donations; 9.3 Quality assurance procedures for blood and blood products 10. Haemagglutination and blood grouping methods 10.1 Introduction; 10.2 Haemagglutination; 10.3 Methods; 10.4 Technical considerations; 10.5 Associated technical considerations; 11. Adverse effects of transfusion 11.1 General precautions; 11.2 Adverse effects caused by transmission of infectious agents; 11.3 Adverse reactions due to the transfusion of red; cells; 11.4 Adverse reactions due to the transfusion of leucocytes; 11.5 Adverse reactions due to the transfusion of platelets; 11.6 Adverse reactions due to the transfusion of plasma; 11.7 Adverse reactions due to other causes; 11.8 Investigation of an alleged reaction to a red cell transfusion; 11.9 Summary 12. Stem cell processing and transplantation 12.1 Introduction; 12.2 Some useful definitions; 12.3 Clinical situations requiring a haemopoietic stem cell transplant; 12.4 Sources and processing of haemopoietic stem cells for transplant; 12.7 Transfusion support post transplant; 12.7 Problems associated with the transplantation of haemopoietic stem cell transplants; 12.8 The major histocompatibility complex; 12.9 The HLA system;l; 12.10 Availability and choice of donors 13. Applications of molecular and immunological techniques 13.1 Introduction ; 13.2 Molecular techniques for the identification of blood groups; 13.3 Applications of molecular techniques; 13. 4 Further applications of molecular techniques; 13.5 Immunological techniques using flow cytometry

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